freeforum.gr

δοκιμαστική λειτουργία - συμβουλές καλόδεχτες

Χορτοφαγία και vegan

User avatar
osho_st
Site Admin
Posts: 312
Joined: Tue Feb 11, 2014 12:04 am

Υπερθέρμανση και ζωική παραγωγή.

Postby osho_st » Mon Jul 03, 2017 7:42 pm

Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and Mitigating Climate Change
Conclusions
Immediate and far-reaching changes in current animal agriculture practices and consumption patterns are both critical and timely if GHGs from the farm animal sector are to be mitigated.
...................
..............
As the numbers of farm animals reared for meat, egg, and dairy production increase, so do emissions from their production. By 2050, global farm animal production is expected to double from present levels. The environmental impacts of animal agriculture require that governments, international organizations, producers, and consumers focus more attention on the role played by meat, egg, and dairy production. Mitigating and preventing the environmental harms caused by this sector require immediate and substantial changes in regulation, production practices, and consumption patterns.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2367646/


Η απελευθέρωση από το γνωστό.

User avatar
osho_st
Site Admin
Posts: 312
Joined: Tue Feb 11, 2014 12:04 am

Υπερθέρμανση και ζωική παραγωγή. F.A.O.

Postby osho_st » Mon Jul 03, 2017 7:47 pm

http://www.fao.org/newsroom/en/news/200 ... index.html
Livestock a major threat to environment
Remedies urgently needed
29 November 2006, Rome - Which causes more greenhouse gas emissions, rearing cattle or driving cars?

Surprise!
According to a new report published by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, the livestock sector generates more greenhouse gas emissions as measured in CO2 equivalent – 18 percent – than transport. It is also a major source of land and water degradation.

Says Henning Steinfeld, Chief of FAO’s Livestock Information and Policy Branch and senior author of the report: “Livestock are one of the most significant contributors to today’s most serious environmental problems. Urgent action is required to remedy the situation.”

With increased prosperity, people are consuming more meat and dairy products every year. Global meat production is projected to more than double from 229 million tonnes in 1999/2001 to 465 million tonnes in 2050, while milk output is set to climb from 580 to 1043 million tonnes.

Long shadow
The global livestock sector is growing faster than any other agricultural sub-sector. It provides livelihoods to about 1.3 billion people and contributes about 40 percent to global agricultural output. For many poor farmers in developing countries livestock are also a source of renewable energy for draft and an essential source of organic fertilizer for their crops.

But such rapid growth exacts a steep environmental price, according to the FAO report, Livestock’s Long Shadow –Environmental Issues and Options. “The environmental costs per unit of livestock production must be cut by one half, just to avoid the level of damage worsening beyond its present level,” it warns.

When emissions from land use and land use change are included, the livestock sector accounts for 9 percent of CO2 deriving from human-related activities, but produces a much larger share of even more harmful greenhouse gases. It generates 65 percent of human-related nitrous oxide, which has 296 times the Global Warming Potential (GWP) of CO2. Most of this comes from manure.

And it accounts for respectively 37 percent of all human-induced methane (23 times as warming as CO2), which is largely produced by the digestive system of ruminants, and 64 percent of ammonia, which contributes significantly to acid rain.

Livestock now use 30 percent of the earth’s entire land surface, mostly permanent pasture but also including 33 percent of the global arable land used to producing feed for livestock, the report notes. As forests are cleared to create new pastures, it is a major driver of deforestation, especially in Latin America where, for example, some 70 percent of former forests in the Amazon have been turned over to grazing.

Land and water
At the same time herds cause wide-scale land degradation, with about 20 percent of pastures considered as degraded through overgrazing, compaction and erosion. This figure is even higher in the drylands where inappropriate policies and inadequate livestock management contribute to advancing desertification.

The livestock business is among the most damaging sectors to the earth’s increasingly scarce water resources, contributing among other things to water pollution, euthropication and the degeneration of coral reefs. The major polluting agents are animal wastes, antibiotics and hormones, chemicals from tanneries, fertilizers and the pesticides used to spray feed crops. Widespread overgrazing disturbs water cycles, reducing replenishment of above and below ground water resources. Significant amounts of water are withdrawn for the production of feed.

Livestock are estimated to be the main inland source of phosphorous and nitrogen contamination of the South China Sea, contributing to biodiversity loss in marine ecosystems.

Meat and dairy animals now account for about 20 percent of all terrestrial animal biomass. Livestock’s presence in vast tracts of land and its demand for feed crops also contribute to biodiversity loss; 15 out of 24 important ecosystem services are assessed as in decline, with livestock identified as a culprit.

Remedies
The report, which was produced with the support of the multi-institutional Livestock, Environment and Development (LEAD) Initiative, proposes explicitly to consider these environmental costs and suggests a number of ways of remedying the situation, including:

Land degradation – controlling access and removing obstacles to mobility on common pastures. Use of soil conservation methods and silvopastoralism, together with controlled livestock exclusion from sensitive areas; payment schemes for environmental services in livestock-based land use to help reduce and reverse land degradation.

Atmosphere and climate – increasing the efficiency of livestock production and feed crop agriculture. Improving animals’ diets to reduce enteric fermentation and consequent methane emissions, and setting up biogas plant initiatives to recycle manure.

Water – improving the efficiency of irrigation systems. Introducing full-cost pricing for water together with taxes to discourage large-scale livestock concentration close to cities.

These and related questions are the focus of discussions between FAO and its partners meeting to chart the way forward for livestock production at global consultations in Bangkok this week. These discussions also include the substantial public health risks related to the rapid livestock sector growth as, increasingly, animal diseases also affect humans; rapid livestock sector growth can also lead to the exclusion of smallholders from growing markets.


Η απελευθέρωση από το γνωστό.

User avatar
osho_st
Site Admin
Posts: 312
Joined: Tue Feb 11, 2014 12:04 am

κόστος παραγωγής.

Postby osho_st » Mon Jul 03, 2017 8:44 pm

Πολλοί δυσκολεύονται να καταλάβουν ότι η ζωική παραγωγή απαιτεί αυξημένη θανάτωση έμβιων οργανισμών. Αν και είναι αυτονόητη μια και η μετατροπή συνεπάγεται λογικά απώλειες, μια προσέγγιση που ίσως ξεκαθαρίζει καλύτερα το θέμα είναι η σύγκριση κόστους παραγωγής.
Έτσι από την μελέτη κόστους παραγωγής χοιρινού κρέατος:
http://sbagis.farm.teithe.gr/uploads/8/ ... _a5_05.pdf
Βλέπουμε ότι το ελάχιστο κόστος παραγωγής είναι στα 0,62€ ανά κιλό ζώντος βάρους (περίοδος 1999 - 2001)
Αν σκεφθούμε πως η πρόσοδος παραγωγού πατάτας δύσκολα φτάνει πάνω από 0,30, σήμερα ενώ το κόστος παραγωγής πάει κάπου στα 0,10 με 0,15€ (συχνά εκεί καταλήγει και η προσοδος του παραγωγού....) καταλαβαίνουμε ότι η διαφορά σε πόρους ανάμεσα στις δύο παραγωγές είναι τεράστια.

Η σόγια έχει μάλλον καλύτερη τιμή αλλά και πάλι υπολείπεται κατά πάρα πολύ του κόστους παραγωγής χοιρινού.


Η απελευθέρωση από το γνωστό.

User avatar
osho_st
Site Admin
Posts: 312
Joined: Tue Feb 11, 2014 12:04 am

Δεν είναι απλά κατάλληλη διατροφή για τον άνθρωπο...

Postby osho_st » Tue Jul 04, 2017 5:14 pm

Από ότι φαίνεται οι έρευνες πλέον δείχνουν πως η vegan διατροφή είναι εκτός από κατάλληλη και μάλλον ευεργετική για τον άνθρωπο.

Μάλλον βελτιώνει την μικροχλωρίδα του εντέρου. Μετά θάνατον βέβαια μια και χωρίς κρέας όπως γνωρίζετε δεν ζούμε...
Abstract: This review examines whether there is evidence that a strict vegan diet confers health advantages beyond that of a vegetarian diet or overall healthy eating. Few studies include vegan subjects as a distinct experimental group, yet when vegan diets are directly compared to vegetarian and omnivorous diets, a pattern of protective health benefits emerges. The relatively recent inclusion of vegan diets in studies of gut microbiota and health allows us the opportunity to assess whether the vegan gut microbiota is distinct, and whether the health advantages characteristic of a vegan diet may be partially explained by the associated microbiota profile. The relationship between diet and the intestinal microbial profile appears to follow a continuum, with vegans displaying a gut microbiota most distinct from that of omnivores, but not always significantly different from that of vegetarians. The vegan gut profile appears to be unique in several characteristics, including a reduced abundance of pathobionts and a greater abundance of protective species. Reduced levels of inflammation may be the key feature linking the vegan gut microbiota with protective health effects. However, it is still unclear whether a therapeutic vegan diet can be prescribed to alter the gut microflora for long-term health benefits.
http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/6/11/4822/htm


Η απελευθέρωση από το γνωστό.

User avatar
osho_st
Site Admin
Posts: 312
Joined: Tue Feb 11, 2014 12:04 am

Ενέργεια και vegan

Postby osho_st » Tue Jul 04, 2017 5:16 pm

Όλοι είναι πληρωμένοι από πατατοπαραγωγούς.
The energy consumption of animal- and plant-based diets and, more broadly, the range of energetic planetary footprints spanned by reasonable dietary choices are compared. It is demonstrated that the greenhouse gas emissions of various diets vary by as much as the difference between owning an average sedan versus a sport-utility vehicle under typical driving conditions. The authors conclude with a brief review of the safety of plant-based diets, and find no reasons for concern.
http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/full/10.1175/EI167.1


Η απελευθέρωση από το γνωστό.

User avatar
osho_st
Site Admin
Posts: 312
Joined: Tue Feb 11, 2014 12:04 am

Re: Χορτοφαγία και vegan

Postby osho_st » Tue Jul 04, 2017 5:20 pm

Μάλλον βοηθά την ρευματοειδή αρθρίτιδα. Μήπως είναι ζόμπι οι εξεταζόμενοι;
Results: There were significant (p < 0.001) decreases in fat (69%), protein (24%), and energy (22%), and a significant increase in carbohydrate (55%) intake. All measures of RA symptomatology decreased significantly (p < 0.05), except for duration of morning stiffness (p > 0.05). Weight also decreased significantly (p < 0.001). At 4 weeks, C-reactive protein decreased 16% (ns, p > 0.05), RA factor decreased 10% (ns, p > 0.05), while erythrocyte sedimentation rate was unchanged (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: This study showed that patients with moderate-to-severe RA, who switch to a very low-fat, vegan diet can experience significant reductions in RA symptoms.
http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10 ... 2753507195


Η απελευθέρωση από το γνωστό.

User avatar
osho_st
Site Admin
Posts: 312
Joined: Tue Feb 11, 2014 12:04 am

Re: Χορτοφαγία και vegan

Postby osho_st » Tue Jul 04, 2017 5:21 pm

People become vegetarians for many reasons, including health, religious convictions, concerns about animal welfare or the use of antibiotics and hormones in livestock, or a desire to eat in a way that avoids excessive use of environmental resources. Some people follow a largely vegetarian diet because they can't afford to eat meat. Becoming a vegetarian has become more appealing and accessible, thanks to the year-round availability of fresh produce, more vegetarian dining options, and the growing culinary influence of cultures with largely plant-based diets.

Approximately six to eight million adults in the United States eat no meat, fish, or poultry, according to a Harris Interactive poll commissioned by the Vegetarian Resource Group, a nonprofit organization that disseminates information about vegetarianism. Several million more have eliminated red meat but still eat chicken or fish. About two million have become vegans, forgoing not only animal flesh but also animal-based products such as milk, cheese, eggs, and gelatin.

Traditionally, research into vegetarianism focused mainly on potential nutritional deficiencies, but in recent years, the pendulum has swung the other way, and studies are confirming the health benefits of meat-free eating. Nowadays, plant-based eating is recognized as not only nutritionally sufficient but also as a way to reduce the risk for many chronic illnesses. According to the American Dietetic Association, "appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases."
.....
...
http://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-h ... vegetarian
Image


Η απελευθέρωση από το γνωστό.

User avatar
osho_st
Site Admin
Posts: 312
Joined: Tue Feb 11, 2014 12:04 am

Re: Χορτοφαγία και vegan

Postby osho_st » Tue Jul 04, 2017 5:22 pm

Our knowledge is far from complete regarding the relationship between vegetarian diets and human health. However, scientific advances in the last decades have considerably changed the role that vegetarian diets may play in human nutrition. Components of a healthy vegetarian diet include a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grain cereals, legumes and nuts. Numerous studies show important and quantifiable benefits of the different components of vegetarian diets, namely the reduction of risk for many chronic diseases and the increase in longevity. Such evidence is derived from the study of vegetarians as well as other populations. While meat intake has been related to increased risk for a variety of chronic diseases, an abundant consumption of vegetables, fruits, cereals, nuts, and legumes all have been independently related with a lower risk for several chronic degenerative diseases, such as ischemic heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and many cancers. Hence, whole foods of plant origin seem to be beneficial on their own merit for chronic disease prevention. This is possibly more certain than the detrimental effects of meats. Vegetarian diets, as any other diet pattern, have potential health risks, namely marginal intake of essential nutrients. However, from the public health viewpoint the health benefits of a well-planned vegetarian diet far outweigh the potential risks.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15806870


Η απελευθέρωση από το γνωστό.

User avatar
osho_st
Site Admin
Posts: 312
Joined: Tue Feb 11, 2014 12:04 am

Έρευνες για υγεία και vegan - χορτοφαγική διατροφή

Postby osho_st » Tue Jul 04, 2017 6:04 pm

Η καταλληλότητα και τα πλεονεκτήματα της χορτοφαγικής και vegan διατροφής δεν πρέπει να μας καθησυχάζουν και αδιαφορούμε για τις απαιτήσεις της διατροφής αυτού του τύπου.
Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n–3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals.
http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/89/5/1627S.short


Η απελευθέρωση από το γνωστό.

User avatar
osho_st
Site Admin
Posts: 312
Joined: Tue Feb 11, 2014 12:04 am

vegan και μειωμένη θνησιμότητα

Postby osho_st » Tue Jul 04, 2017 6:17 pm

Μήπως τελικά η vegan διατροφή συνδέεται με μειωμένη θνησιμότητα;
Αν και δεν είναι αρκετά τεκμηριωμένο, έχουμε αξιόλογες ενδείξεις.
Vegetarian diets are associated with lower all-cause mortality and with some reductions in cause-specific mortality. Results appeared to be more robust in males. These favorable associations should be considered carefully by those offering dietary guidance.

The possible relationship between diet and mortality remains an important area of investigation. Previous studies have identified dietary factors associated with mortality. Those found to correlate with reduced mortality include nuts,1- 4 fruit,5,6 cereal fiber,2 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs),2 ω-3PUFAs,3 green salad,7 Mediterranean dietary patterns,8- 11 “healthy” or “prudent” dietary patterns,10,12,13 plant-based diet scores,14 plant-based low-carbohydrate diets,15 and vegetarian diets.4,16,17 Associations with increased mortality have been found for a high glycemic load,2 meat,6,7 red meat,18,19 processed meat,18,19 eggs,7 potatoes,5 increased energy intake,20 and animal-based low-carbohydrate diets.15

Vegetarian dietary patterns may contain many of the above-listed foods and nutrients associated with reduced mortality while having reduced intakes of some foods associated with increased mortality. Vegetarian dietary patterns have been associated with reductions in risk for several chronic diseases, such as hypertension,21,22 metabolic syndrome,23 diabetes mellitus,24,25 and ischemic heart disease (IHD),17,26 which might be expected to result in lower mortality. Vegetarian diets represent common, real-world dietary patterns and are thus attractive targets for study.

Previous studies of the relationship between vegetarian dietary patterns and mortality have yielded mixed results. In the first Adventist Health Study, a study of 34 198 California Seventh-day Adventists,27 vegetarian dietary patterns were associated with reduced all-cause mortality and increased longevity.4,17 In contrast, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Oxford (EPIC-Oxford) cohort study did not show an all-cause mortality advantage for British vegetarians (among 47 254 vegetarian and nonvegetarian participants),28 and pooled results have shown reductions only for IHD mortality.16

Our objective, in light of the potential benefits of vegetarian diets and the existing uncertainty in the literature, was to evaluate the possible association of vegetarian dietary patterns with reduced mortality in a large American cohort including many vegetarians.
http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaint ... le/1710093


Η απελευθέρωση από το γνωστό.


Return to “Υγεία”