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Χορτοφαγική πηγή Β12?

Postby osho_st » Tue Jul 04, 2017 6:36 pm

Ένα εμπορικό προϊόν φυτικής προέλευσης (φύκια) με Β12 που είναι κατάλληλο για κάλυψη των ανθρώπινων αναγκών.
http://econtent.hogrefe.com/doi/abs/10. ... 1.79.2.117
Abstract

Vitamin B12 is a critical nutrient that is often inadequate in a plant-based (vegan) diet, thus the inclusion of a reliable vitamin B12 source in a vegan diet is recommended as essential. Unfortunately, many natural sources of vitamin B12 have been proven to contain biologically inactive vitamin B12 analogues, inadequate for human supplementation. The aim of this non-randomized open trial was to determine whether supplementation with a natural Klamath algae-based product (“AFA-B12”, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae algae plus a proprietary mix of enzymes) could favorably affect the vitamin B12 status of a group of 15 vegan subjects. By assessing blood concentration of vitamin B12, folate, and more importantly homocysteine (Hcy, a reliable marker in vegans of their B12 absorption), the vitamin B12 status of the participants at the end of the 3-month intervention period, while receiving the Klamath-algae supplement (T2), was compared with their vitamin B12 status at the end of the 3-month control period (T1), when they were not receiving any supplement, having stopped taking their usual vitamin B12 supplement at the beginning of the study (T0). Compared to the control period, in the intervention period participants improved their vitamin B12 status, significantly reducing Hcy blood concentration (p=0.003). In conclusion, the Klamath algae product AFA-B12 appears to be, in a preliminary study, an adequate and reliable source of vitamin B12 in humans.


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Ζωοτροφές και Β12.

Postby osho_st » Tue Jul 04, 2017 7:09 pm

Οι ζωοτροφές περιέχουν συχνά Β12 σαν πρόσθετο. Και αυτό γιατί δεν το παράγουν τα ίδια τα ζώα αλλά βακτήρια που υπάρχουν στο εντερικό τους σύστημα και στην τροφή. Όμως η χρήση βαθμιαία ποιο "καθαρού" περιβάλλοντος και τροφών, έχει σαν αποτέλεσμα να εμφανίζονται ελλείψεις Β12, έτσι επιλέγεται ο εμπλουτισμός των τροφών με Β12 (και άλλα στοιχεία).
Δεν θα το βρείτε σε όλες αλλά σε πολλές κυρίως πλήρεις.
Του λόγου το αληθές, μερικές παραπομπές από Ελλάδα.

http://www.viozokat.gr/datafiles/file/B ... 120315.pdf
http://www.viozokat.gr/datafiles/file/B ... 120315.pdf
http://www.viozokat.gr/datafiles/file/A ... 011014.pdf
https://www.zookar.gr/index.php?option= ... &Itemid=12
https://www.zookar.gr/index.php?option= ... &Itemid=14
https://www.elviz.gr/el/proionta-zootro ... E%BF%CF%85
https://www.elviz.gr/el/proionta-zootro ... F%89%CE%BD

Μια και τα προϊόντα αλλάζουν και οι εταιρίες αλλάζουν και αυτές, μπορεί οι παραπομπές να μην ισχύουν όταν θα το διαβάζετε, αλλά με λίγο ψάξιμο θα βρείτε άλλες.


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osho_st
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Οφέλη στην υγεία από την σόγια στην διατροφή και έρευνα για σχετικά προβλήματα.

Postby osho_st » Sat Jul 15, 2017 11:29 am

Υπάρχουν πλέον ενδείξεις ότι η χρήση της σόγιας στην διατροφή, εκτός από σημαντική πηγή προτεϊνών προσφέρει και μια σχετική προστασία σε κίνδυνο της στεφανιαίας νόσου ή καρκίνου του μαστού και του προστάτη, πιθανά να βελτιώνει τη νεφρική λειτουργία, να βοηθά σε προβλήματα κατάθλιψης και να βελτιώνει την υγεία του δέρματος.
Ενώ οι φόβοι για αρνητικές επιδράσεις των των ισοφλαβονών που περιέχει, για δυσμενείς επιδράσεις τους σε ορισμένα άτομα, τείνουν να κρίνονται αμελητέες.
Φυσικά τα άτομα που εμφανίζουν αλλεργία στο συγκεκριμένο προϊόν πρέπει να το αποφεύγουν, ευτυχώς είναι λίγα.
Soy and Health Update: Evaluation of the Clinical and Epidemiologic Literature
Abstract: Soyfoods have long been recognized as sources of high-quality protein and healthful fat, but over the past 25 years these foods have been rigorously investigated for their role in chronic disease prevention and treatment. There is evidence, for example, that they reduce risk of coronary heart disease and breast and prostate cancer. In addition, soy alleviates hot flashes and may favorably affect renal function, alleviate depressive symptoms and improve skin health. Much of the focus on soyfoods is because they are uniquely-rich sources of isoflavones. Isoflavones are classified as both phytoestrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators. Despite the many proposed benefits, the presence of isoflavones has led to concerns that soy may exert untoward effects in some individuals. However, these concerns are based primarily on animal studies, whereas the human research supports the safety and benefits of soyfoods. In support of safety is the recent conclusion of the European Food Safety Authority that isoflavones do not adversely affect the breast, thyroid or uterus of postmenopausal women. This review covers each of the major research areas involving soy focusing primarily on the clinical and epidemiologic research. Background information on Asian soy intake, isoflavones, and nutrient content is also provided.
-------------------
.......
Conclusions
Soyfoods have become increasingly popular in non-Asian countries. Their versatility allows them to easily be incorporated into Western diets and therefore provides a convenient way to exploit the nutritional advantages of legumes, which often play an underutilized role in North America and many European countries. However, the macronutrient composition of the soybean is different from other legumes. Also, soy protein is higher in quality than other legume proteins and the soybean is a good source of both essential fatty acids. Soy protein also directly lowers circulating LDL-cholesterol levels and may also modestly lower blood pressure. Replacement of commonly-consumed sources of protein in Western diets by soyfoods may also lead to a favorable change in the fatty acid content of the diet.
The most distinctive aspect of the soybean is its high isoflavone content. Isoflavones are proposed as having a number of health benefits although not surprisingly, the degree to which the evidence supports these claims varies. For example, there is solid evidence in support of isoflavones alleviating hot flashes and improving arterial health in menopausal women whereas the evidence that they reduce risk of breast and prostate cancer, not surprisingly, is more preliminary. Concerns that the estrogen-like properties of isoflavones produce untoward effects in some subpopulations, such as postmenopausal women, are not supported by the clinical and epidemiologic research. Evidence indicates soyfoods can be safely consumed by all individuals except those who are allergic to soy protein, which is relatively uncommon in comparison to the number of individuals allergic to many other commonly-consumed foods [436,437,438].
When adding soy to the diet it is important to consider the overall nutritional quality of a particular soyfood since many Westernized soyfoods include a variety of non-soy ingredients. There are no formal recommendations for soy intake beyond the 25 g/day soy protein established by the US FDA as the threshold intake for cholesterol reduction. However, population and clinical studies involving adults suggest benefits are associated with approximately two to four servings per day. Ideally, soyfoods are incorporated into the diet by displacing less healthy foods and as part of an overall healthy diet designed to lower risk of chronic disease such as the approach represented by the portfolio diet [439].
http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/8/12/754/htm


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American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention

Postby osho_st » Sat Jul 15, 2017 12:10 pm

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.3 ... 2.2.92/pdf
American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention: Reducing the Risk of Cancer with Healthy Food Choices and Physical Activity
......
...
Fiber
What is dietary fiber and can it prevent cancer?
Dietary fiber includes a wide variety of plant carbohydrates that are not digestible by
humans. Specific categories of fiber are “soluble” (like oat bran) or “insoluble” (like
wheat bran and cellulose). Soluble fiber helps to reduce blood cholesterol and therefore,
helps lower the risk of coronary heart disease. Good sources of fiber are beans, vegetables,
whole grains, and fruits. Associations between fiber and cancer risk are inconclusive, but
consumption of these foods is still recommended because they contain other
substances that can help prevent cancer and because of their other health benefits.
...........
.....
Phytochemicals
What are phytochemicals, and do they reduce cancer risk?
The term “phytochemicals” refers to a wide variety of compounds produced by
plants. Some of these compounds protect plants against insects or have other biologically
important functions. Some have either antioxidant or hormone-like actions both in
plants and in people who eat them. Because consumption of vegetables and fruits reduces
cancer risk, researchers are searching for specific components that might account for the
beneficial effects. There is no evidence that phytochemicals taken as supplements are as
beneficial as the vegetables, fruits, beans, and grains from which they are extracted.
......
....
Vegetarian Diets
Do vegetarian diets reduce cancer risk?
Vegetarian diets include many health promoting features; they tend to be low in
saturated fat and high in fiber, vitamins, and phytochemicals (e.g., flavonoids, etc.). It is not
possible to conclude at this time, however, that a vegetarian diet has any special benefits for the
prevention of cancer. Vegetarian diets differ in composition, although all avoid consumption
of red meat. A vegetarian diet can be quite healthful if it is carefully planned and provides
adequate calories. Diets including lean meats in small to moderate amounts can be just as
healthful. The greater the restriction of food groups in a particular diet, the more possibility
there is of dietary deficiencies. Strict vegetarian diets that avoid all animal products, including
milk and eggs, should be supplemented with vitamin B12, zinc, and iron (especially for
children and premenopausal women)
........
....


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International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)

Postby osho_st » Sat Jul 15, 2017 12:20 pm

Nutrition and Lifestyle: Opportunities for Cancer Prevention
IARC Scientific Publication No. 156
https://www.iarc.fr/en/publications/pdf ... /SP156.pdf


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osho_st
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Κόκκινο κρέας και μεταποιημένο, πιθανά να αυξάνουν τις καρκινογεννέσεις.

Postby osho_st » Tue Jan 09, 2018 8:56 pm

Σύμφωνα με τον World Health Organization η κατανάλωση κόκκινου κρέατος και επεξεργασμένου, αυξάνουν λίγο τις πιθανότητες εμφάνισης καρκίνου.
Q&A on the carcinogenicity of the consumption of red meat and processed meat
............
......
22. Should we be vegetarians?

Vegetarian diets and diets that include meat have different advantages and disadvantages for health. However, this evaluation did not directly compare health risks in vegetarians and people who eat meat. That type of comparison is difficult because these groups can be different in other ways besides their consumption of meat.
23. Is there a type of red meat that is safer?

A few studies have investigated the cancer risks associated with different types of red meat, such as beef and pork, and with different kinds of processed meats, like ham and hot dogs. However, there is not enough information to say whether higher or lower cancer risks are related to eating any particular type of red meat or processed meat.
24. Could the preservation method influence the risk (e.g. salting, deep-freezing, or irradiation)?

Different preservation methods could result in the formation of carcinogens (e.g. N-nitroso compounds), but whether and how much this contributes to the cancer risk is unknown.
25. How many studies were evaluated?

The IARC Working Group considered more than 800 different studies on cancer in humans (some studies provided data on both types of meat; in total more than 700 epidemiological studies provided data on red meat and more than 400 epidemiological studies provided data on processed meat).
26. How many experts were involved in the evaluation?

The IARC Working Group consisted of 22 experts from 10 countries.
27. What actions do you think governments should take based on your results?

IARC is a research organization that evaluates the evidence on the causes of cancer but does not make health recommendations as such. The IARC Monographs are, however, often used as a basis for making national and international policies, guidelines and recommendations to minimize cancer risks. Governments may decide to include this new information on the cancer hazards of processed meat in the context of other health risks and benefits in updating dietary recommendations.
http://www.who.int/features/qa/cancer-red-meat/en/


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Carnism

Postby osho_st » Tue Jan 16, 2018 7:29 pm

Είχα υπόψη μου την "ψυχολογική απόσταση" και το "δεδομένο", αλλά δεν είχα σκεφθεί αρκετά διεξοδικά το γεγονός ότι οι πολιτισμικές μας διαφορές οδηγούν σε διαφορετική αξιολόγηση της αξίας ζωής ενός ζώου, χωρίς αντικειμενικό λόγο.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carnism
Carnism is a concept used in discussions of humanity's relation to other animals, defined as a prevailing ideology in which people support the use and consumption of animal products, especially meat.[n 1] Carnism is presented as a dominant belief system supported by a variety of defense mechanisms and mostly unchallenged assumptions.[1][2][3][4] The term carnism was coined by social psychologist and vegan activist Melanie Joy in 2001 and popularized by her book Why We Love Dogs, Eat Pigs, and Wear Cows (2009).[5][6][7]

Central to the ideology, according to the theory, is the acceptance of meat-eating as "natural", "normal", "necessary", and (sometimes) "nice".[n 2] An important feature of carnism is the classification of only particular species of animal as food, and the acceptance of practices toward those animals that would be rejected as unacceptable cruelty if applied to other species. This classification is culturally relative, so that, for example, dogs are eaten by some people in Korea but may be pets in the West, while cows are eaten in the West but protected in much of India.[1]
Image


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Carnism (2)

Postby osho_st » Tue Jan 16, 2018 7:33 pm

Σχετικό βίντεο. Έχει υπότιτλους στα Ελληνικά και σε άλλες γλώσσες. Θα τους βρείτε από το εικονίδιο για τις ρυθμίσεις.
"Έχετε αναρωτηθεί ποτέ γιατί τρώτε μοσχαρίσια μπιφτέκια αλλά όχι μπιφτέκι Αρουραίου;;
Γιατί πίνετε γάλα αγελάδας αλλά όχι γάλα γουρουνιού;; Γιατί τρώτε φτερούγες κοτόπουλου και όχι Κύκνου;;
Ποτέ δεν αναρωτήθηκα ώσπου είχα μια συγκλονιστική εμπειρία! Δικαιοσύνη χρειαζόμαστε ΟΧΙ δικαιολογίες. Αφήστε με να σας εξηγήσω!"
.Η Dr.Melanie Joy απόφοιτη του Πανεπιστημίου Χάρβαρντ καθηγήτρια ψυχολογίας και κοινωνιολογίας στο Πανεπιστήμιο της Μασαχουσέτης στη Βοστώνη, παρουσιάζει εντυπωσιακά και άγνωστα στοιχεία σχετικά με την ψυχολογία της κατανάλωσης κρέατος.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ao2GL3NAWQU


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Carnism (3)

Postby osho_st » Tue Jan 16, 2018 7:41 pm

Η σελίδα Beyond Carnism
logo.png
Beyond Carnism is a US-based, international organization dedicated to exposing and transforming carnism, the invisible belief system that conditions people to eat certain animals.

Carnism causes extensive suffering. Animal agriculture is responsible for the unnecessary slaughter of 77 billion land animals worldwide per year, and it is a major contributor to environmental degradation, human disease, and human rights violations. However, the majority of people who eat animals are unaware that they are contributing to such destruction.

At Beyond Carnism, we believe that people need and deserve to know the truth about carnism, so they can make their food choices freely — because without awareness, there is no free choice.

Beyond Carnism seeks to empower concerned citizens and vegan advocates through education and activism, to help create a more compassionate and just world for all beings, human and nonhuman alike.
https://www.carnism.org/


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Κοινονικά δομημένες οι ανάγκες.

Postby Vania_st » Tue Feb 13, 2018 7:38 pm

Δεν μπορώ να διαφωνήσω στο ότι είναι σκόπιμη μια αλλαγή προς χορτοφαγική διατροφή για όλους τους λόγους που αναφέρθηκαν μέχρι εδώ. Ίσως και για μερικούς ακόμα που δεν έχουν τεκμηριωθεί αρκετά.
Το πρόβλημά μου, και νομίζω πρόβλημα πολλών, είναι πως η χρήση ζωικής πρωτεΐνης είναι βαθιά ριζωμένη κοινωνική συνήθεια. Έτσι ένα γεύμα φίλων χωρίς κρέας φαντάζει περίεργο και τα εστιατόρια έχουν μια μικρή ποικιλία φυτικών πιάτων. Άσε που σε κοιτάνε σαν να ήρθες από τον Άρη, ή δεν καταλαβαίνουν τι θες να πεις.
Νυστεύεται, να σας φέρω ψάρι;

Προσωπικά απλά αποφεύγω το κρέας και το ψάρι, αλλά καταλαβαίνω όσους δυσκολεύονται, όπως εγώ, να ακολουθήσουν μια φυτική διατροφή. Πρέπει να πάνε κόντρα σε γενικά αποδεκτές κοινωνικές πρακτικές και συνήθειες. Ίσως ξεκινάνε από πολύ παλιά, σε ένα τροφό-συλλεκτικό στάδιο της κοινωνίας, όταν η εύρεση πρωτεΐνης ήταν εξαιρετικά δύσκολη, και ένα καλό κομμάτι κρέας μπορούσε να κατέληγε σε σεξουαλικά οφέλη για τον κυνηγό.
Θα πρέπει να περάσουν αρκετά χρόνια πριν η επιλογή vegan διατροφής, για τον μέσο άνθρωπο γίνει αρκετά προσιτή. Κυρίως λόγο κοινωνικής αντίστασης στην αλλαγή.




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